CS1 reduces the production of PAI-1

Although the production of t-PA can be normalized by the mechanism described above, the fibrinolysis ability is not fully restored because many risk individuals also have greatly elevated PAI-1 levels.

PAI-1 is the major factor that inhibits t-PA. The concentration of PAI-1 varies during the day and when PAI-1 is highest in the blood, the risk of heart attack and / or stroke is highest.1 It is well known that elevated PAI-1 levels in the blood is an important and significant risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Cereno Scientific has in their studies found that in addition to the normalizing effects on t-PA production, administration of valproic acid entails a reduction in PAI-1 levels.

The discovery is unique and important because it has opened up an opportunity to develop a new drug, CS1, with a dual mechanism of action for an optimized clot protective effect.


  1. 2014 Jan 23;123(4):590-3. doi: 10.1182/blood-2013-07-517060. Epub 2013 Nov 7. Human circadian system causes a morning peak in prothrombotic plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) independent of the sleep/wake cycle.